physical objects, we cen see and those which are studied by physicians and astronomers
A quark is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks were considered to be indivisible for a long time, as they are very small, 20 thousand times smaller than protons. Now it is known that they have at least 6 flavours, named up (u), down (d), strange (s), charm (c), bottom (b), and top (t).
It was in 1964 when two scientists (Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig) proposed that protons and neutrons consist of smaller particles.
Discovery of quarks allowed to explain some processes in nuclei.
Inspite the fact
that quarks are known as the smallest particles, it is considered
that they can themselves have sub-components which scientists
The atom is a basic unit of matter
It consists of a dense central
nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons
and electrically neutral neutrons.
The word "Atomos" in the Greek language means "Indivisible". The idea that atoms were indivisible was proposed by ancient Indian and Greek scientists. In 17 and 18 centuries this idea was developed, but then scientists discovered another structures inside the atom itself.
Atoms are so small that can be seen only through the tunneling microscope. More than 99.9% of atom's mass is located in its nucleus.
A molecule is an electrically
neutral group of two or more atoms held together by covalent
They can consist of atoms belonging to the same material (O2), to the different ones (H2O).
Materials and living organisms consist of atoms. They also are the basis for oceans and atmosphere.
The cell is the basic structural
and functional unit of all known living organisms. The cell
was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. The cell is the smallest
particle of organisms, something like the brick of the life.
People can have up to 100 trillion of cells. However there can
be organisms, which are cells themselves. The size of cells
amounts to 10 microns, and the weight - 1 nanogram.
All the processes, important for our live, are flowing in cells. Cells affect heredity, storage and transition of information.
From Greek means "a tool".
Every organ carries out its function: pumping of blood, digestion.
It is difficult to say, which organ is the most important for us - the loss of each will negatively affect the organism in the whole.
Employee of any organization is organ himself - the Brains, the Heart, the Eyes...
Human is a king the nature. However now he is looking more like a ruthless bloody dictator.
He is considered to be superpredators, the most powerful living creatures, but he lives fully isolated from it. He conflicts with it.
People built cities and feel uncofortable beyond them.
Especially having no gun, without which he will loose the battle to a relatively weak predator like a dog, for example.
We are speaking of predators? Oh how about the enimies, which can easily kill us, and we hardly can see them in the microscope?
Any place, inhabited by people. Looks like an anthill, but the difference is that an anthill inhabited by ants ia better organized.
People are known for their schooling habit. They always preferred to live collectively. It was sound enough, as it allowed join forces when guarding campfire, harvesting, hunting, protecting. In medieval times people could afford defending their castles or capture others' only when gathering together.
When being alone, it is much more difficult to repel a hooligan attack or protect the rights from travesty of justice.
The term "Country" is strictly
the political one, meaning something, having borders. Nowadays
there are something like 252 contries of which 193 are the
Though people consider them to be better than other animals, we still have purely animal instincts such as fighting for territory and domination.
This instinct is the main reason which caused disappearance of many states.
Continent is a huge landmass, washed by oceans. Nowadays there are 6 of them, of which only Antarctica is not dwelled. Once there was only one supercontinent, Pangea, washed by the superocean Panthalassa. Pangea then split into two continents - Laurasia and Gondwana.
Continents did never cease to move, and in the future they perhaps will not once change the face of the Earth.
The total land area of all
continents is 148,647,000 square kilometres (57,393,000 sq
mi), or 29.1% of earth's surface (510,065,600 square kilometres
/ 196,937,400 square miles).
Asia - Area 43,820,000 sq km, population 4,164,252,000 people
Europe - Area 10,180,000 sq km, population 738,199,000 people
Africa - Area 30,370,000 sq km, population 1,022,234,000 people
North America - Area 24,490,000 sq km, 542,056,000 people
South America - Area 17,840,000 sq km, 392,555,000 people
Australia - Area 9,008,500 sq km, 29,127,000 people
Antarctica - Area 13,720,000 sq km, 1,000 people
The word "Ocean" derrives
from the name of ancient Greek titan Oceanus who was believed
to be the world-ocean, an enormous river encircling the world.
he had a wife Tethys and 3000 daughters Oceanides.
All rivers of Europe and Anatolia were considered to be Ocean's daughters. We actually know that this is rather relative, as rivers always carry their waters to the ocean, but do not spring from it.
1) Pacific (155,557,000 sq km) Mariana Trench, Pacific 35,827 ft
2) Atlantic (76,762,000 sq km) Puerto Rico Trench, Atlantic 30,246 ft.
3) Indian (68,556,000 sq km) Java Trench, Indian 24,460 ft.
4) Southern (20,327,000 sq km) Southern Ocean, 23,737 ft.
5) Arctic (14,056,000 sq
km) Arctic Basin, Arctic 18,456 ft.
In Greek means "wandering star". Rounded by a star or its remnants, doomed to orbit their captor.
There are 8 such wanderers in our Solar system. They have different nature and construction.
Planets impacted our lives so that many phenomena are believed to happen due to such an impact. It were the planet, which gave us the seven days, which we cll a week.
SOLAR SYSTEM -
Solar system consists of the Sun and other celestrial objects. Of all 8 planets of our Solar system only one is habitable. Almost all the planets have sateliites. The more massive the planet is the more satellites can orbit it. It is like a mini-solar system.
Altough there is only one world in the whole system which we can call "home", scientists seriously consider possibility of colonising neighbouring planets and satellites. Though many doubt practicability and realizability of these projects due to their possible cost, the question is still exciting fo those, who think tat if anything happens to one home, it would be a good idea to have a spare one.
It is interesting that construction of solar systems is repeated at the atom level. Electrons orbiting nucleum are like planets, rounded by the Sun. In turn, moleculas are like several solar systems, chained together by gravity.
is a massive, gravitationally
bound system, consisting of stars, stellar remnants, stardust
and dark matter, which is at the moment poorly understood. The
word "galaxy" itself derives from Greek "milky" which means
that our galaxy, "Milky way", has been called so because if
to watch it from Earth, reminds the flow of Milk, spilt by someone
onto the dark sky. Galaxies can have different forms and sizes.
If to see a galaxy from the side, it is perhaps an unforgettable
show. Imagine millions or billions of stars, going round the
massive center, and you, travelling between these galaxies in
Clusters are the largest of the objects, known in the Universe at the moment. Large can be only be groups of clusters. We are speaking now of such scales in the Universe, which hardly can be imagined or ever reached. We are not that good yet to understand what lies there, on the edge. We were born too early to see the outer space.
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